If this agreement is finally signed and implemented, it could represent a major acceleration of two current trends: increased Chinese investment in the Middle East and the consolidation of an authoritarian anti-American bloc. However, the act of signing such an agreement does not remove existing constraints in Sino-Iranian cooperation, including Iran`s unattractive investment environment, China`s historical reluctance to invest in a country for purely geopolitical reasons, and the constraints that each can offer to the other in managing its common enemy, the United States. These barriers will make it difficult to complete most of the common energy and infrastructure projects mentioned in the document, which are estimated to be worth about $400 billion over 25 years. In short, policymakers should pay close attention to U.S.-Iranian relations – but they should not overreact. Last week, news of a long-term strategic pact between China and Iran caused unrest among Iranian public opinion and politicians, with supporters and opponents having strong views on social media. Former Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad sounded the alarm when he warned against any public reaction that completely rejects the agreement if the government does not consult lawmakers before signing the agreement. In response, government officials quickly condemned its proclamation as fake news, saying there was nothing mysterious about the deal. On the contrary, the Iranian government considered the agreement an important diplomatic achievement for the country, while international isolation has increased. Subsequent studies have shown that China sells precursor and dual-use chemicals and the technology and equipment needed for their use. [18] In 1996, the Washington Post reported that China was supplying chemical weapons facilities in Iran for the military. Arms exports began to decline steadily in the 1990s, but China participated in $400 million arms transfer agreements with Iran. Turnover increased from 1997 to 2000 to $600 million.

On average, since 1982, China has exported $171 million in arms annually to Iran. [43] B. American encirclement policy vis-à-vis Iran: Washington is trying to encircle Iran and prevent it from becoming a regional leader. The administration of former President George W. Bush has called Iran a public promoter of terrorism. However, the administration of former President Barack Obama tried to contain Iran by signing the 2015 nuclear deal and integrating it into the international community.